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Thompson and co-workers lye 69 ] characterized the breast microbiota in breast tumor tissues and 72 non-cancerous adjacent tissues, from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and reported possible microbial compositional shifts among the disease subtypes. This signature was significantly associated with the cancer samples.
Global cancer statistics, To define specific microbial signatures for BC patients may also have implications for future diagnostic development as well as for therapeutic interventions [ 98 ]. Significant differences were also found in the absolute numbers of total bacteria and some bacterial groups F prausnitziiFirmicutesBlautia and Egerthellaaccording to BMI. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these sporadic breast cancers arise in order to develop preventative strategies against this devastating disease.
Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer.
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How many etiological subtypes of breast cancer: So far, the human gastrointestinal tract is the best investigated microbiota and is serving as a model for understanding host—microbiota interactions and disease.
El RasilloS. FirmicutesFaecalibacterium prausnitzii and 1010 spp. Table 1 Human studies dealing with microbiota and breast cancer.
Long-term low-dose effects of mixtures of various chemical combinations. The gut microbiota has been also related to the development of adiposity and obesity [ 55 ], and it is known that overweight and obese women have a higher risk of BC compared to healthy weight women, especially during the postmenopausal period [ 56 ].
Microbiota of human breast tissue. Authors only found higher abundance of Escherichia coli in cases compared with healthy controls.
Differentiating between closely related microbial taxa using 16S rRNA gene data. For this reason, and regardless of efforts that have been achieved by extensive research, the precise etiology for BC is still unknown, but the combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors has been identified.
118010 microbiota of each organ is distinct, and there is an important and functionally relevant inter-individual variability of microbiomes, which makes them a potential determinant of disease including cancer development [ 14 ]. For example, it is essential in digestion and absorption of indigestible carbohydrates for humans dietary fiberproduction of vitamins B and K, metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and immunity.
The evidence and controversies.
Moreover, total bacteria and three groups: ProteobacteriaFirmicutesActinobacteriaBacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia accounted for IgA response to symbiotic bacteria as a mediator of gut homeostasis. Relative abundance of several taxa differed between cases and control: Breast tumor tissue from lumpectomies, mastectomies and breast reductions.
Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with the Microbiota
The intestinal microbiome and estrogen receptor-positive female breast cancer. The relative abundances of these two bacterial species were inversely correlated in paired normal breast tissue but not in tumor tissue, indicating that dysbiosis may be associated with BC. Bacterial profiles were statistically different in normal adjacent tissue from BC women compared with control tissue.
The areolar skin microbota in BC and HC were not significantly distinguishable. Western diet and Western diseases: Therefore, a crosstalk between microbiota and both endogenous hormones and estrogen-like compounds might synergize to provide protection from disease but also to increase the risk of developing hormone-related diseases. Moreover, intestinal bacteria may promote liver cancer through proinflammatory microorganism-associated molecular patterns MAMPs and bacterial metabolites, both of which reach the liver via the portal vein [ 3043 ].
The microenvironment in and around the tumor contains a variety of cell types, including the microbiota. The plant microbiome at work.
Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with the Microbiota
188010 InBC accounted for approximately 1. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: The gut microbiome of case patients oey higher levels of ClostridiaceaeFaecalibacteriumand Ruminococcaceae ; and lower levels of Dorea and Lachnospiraceae.
Epidemiology of triple negative breast cancers. Association of estrogen metabolism with breast cancer risk in different cohorts of postmenopausal women. Additionally, each type of BC held signatures for unique bacterial genera.
Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome. Regulation of Chronic Inflammation and Immunity The 118010 might promote malignancy by inducing chronic inflammation, by altering the balance of host cell proliferation and death, and by triggering uncontrolled innate and adaptive immune responses [ 27 ]. Human Microbiome Project Consortium Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.